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Human exploration of Mars won't be easy. Jennifer Stern, a space scientist for NASA and Martian expert, talks about the differences between Earth and Mars during a recent astronomy forum at Southern.

For those of us old enough to remember the Apollo space program of the 1960s and ’70s, the images of man walking on the Moon will forever be ingrained in our memories. It was a time of excitement, accomplishment, wonder and promise. After all, if we could make it to the Moon, then interplanetary travel could not be too far away, right? And Mars would logically be the next stop with astronauts walking on the Red Planet perhaps as soon as 1984 or 1990…but certainly by the turn of the century.

Well, obviously that didn’t happen. The national enthusiasm for the space program seemed to wane throughout the tumultuous 1970s. Budget restrictions limited NASA programs. And let’s face it, in the afterglow of successful missions to the Moon, maybe we underestimated what a similar voyage to Mars would entail.

The truth is, such a manned flight to and back from Mars is a huge undertaking. By comparison, a trip to the Moon is about 240,000 miles in length. A journey to Mars – even when Earth and Mars are in their closest proximity to each other – is about a 35 million-mile expedition. Flying to the Moon took about three days. A human flight to Mars, based on current technology, would take about six months, according to Jennifer Stern, a NASA space scientist who spoke at a recent forum at Southern, “Missions Possible: A Manned Flight to Mars, & Finding ‘New Earths’ in the Milky Way Galaxy.”

The forum examined both the Kepler Mission (the search for Earth-like plants in the Milky Way Galaxy), and what a manned flight to Mars would entail.

Part I of this series focused on the Kepler Mission. Today, we look at a future trip to Mars.

“This (manned flight to Mars) is going to happen in the next 20 years,” Stern said.

She said that while probes of the planet are of great value, it is only through human exploration of the planet that we can fully understand whether life could have existed on Mars, or might currently exist on Mars. “We need boots on the ground,” Stern said. “We need the human cognitive ability to make decisions, to take samples, to put things into context.”

She stressed that human exploration of Mars is a complicated endeavor. She pointed to three major challenges:

  • Getting and landing on Mars. – Mars has a very thin atmosphere, and it is therefore difficult to land large objects on the planet because there isn’t an adequate atmosphere to slow things down.
  • Living in space. – On Earth, people are protected against radiation by a magnetic field. But in space, the human body is exposed to very high doses of radiation. Part of the challenge is to assess how much radiation the human body can tolerate and how that level can be mitigated. Also, because there is no gravity in space, people lose bone density and muscle mass. That has to be addressed, as well.
  • Living on Mars – Scientists must learn how to use the natural resources of Mars to make oxygen, grow food, etc.

The audience at the forum included 650 people – including 425 high school students and 30 middle school kids. It also included 45 or so individuals from nearby senior centers. While there was a contrast in age of the audience, there wasn’t much difference in enthusiasm. Young, middle-aged and old alike made a point of asking questions of the speakers.

Kids growing up in the 1960s and early ’70s were excited about the prospect of going to the Moon. Some of them were in the audience. And watching the engaged high school and college students at the forum, you have to think that some of that enthusiasm will remain when these 15- and 20-year-olds are 30- and 35- and 40-year-olds, about the time that the first rocket to Mars – with humans aboard – is likely to be launched.

Stern said that those currently in high school or college are going to be part of this new mission in some way. She said that while only a small number of people will directly be involved in a Martian trip, many will be involved in the technology associated with it. And she said everyone will benefit from the research that’s done on bone density, radiation and other health and technological matters affiliated with the project. “It’s going to help the quality of life on Earth,” she said. “It’s going to help keep us strong as we age.”

And you have to wonder what the kids of the 2030s will be thinking when they see astronauts take those first steps in the Red Planet. Will they view that milestone the way that kids of the 1960s viewed Neil Armstrong and “Buzz” Aldrin walking on the Moon?

Time will tell, of course. But if the enthusiasm displayed by the kids of 2015 is any indication, it appears to be a likely prospect.

The high schools attending the forum were:

  • Abbott Tech (Danbury)
  • Amity (Woodbridge)
  • Berlin
  • Derby
  • East Haven
  • Haddam-Killingworth (Higganum)
  • Hand (Madison)
  • Hillhouse (New Haven)
  • Lyman Hall (Wallingford)
  • Maloney (Meriden)
  • Morgan (Clinton)
  • Newtown
  • North Haven
  • Stratford

The audience also included middle school students from the Columbus Family Academy in New Haven;  senior center organizations from Branford, Guilford and New Haven; members of Southern’s campus community and folks from the general public.

forumastronomyhowell
Steve Howell, project scientist for NASA's Kepler Mission, talks about how planets need to be in a 'habitable zone' to have a significant chance of harboring life. He discussed the Kepler Mission during a recent astronomy forum at Southern.

The question of whether we are alone in the universe has fascinated scientists and non-scientists alike for centuries.

While it’s true that speculation about intelligent beings inhabiting other planets has been fodder for science fiction, serious scientists also are eager to find out the answer to that age-old question. And the Kepler Mission is a first step — albeit a small one — toward finding the answer.

Steve Howell, project scientist for Kepler, was the keynote speaker during a Nov. 16 forum at Southern called, “Missions Possible: A Manned Flight to Mars, & Finding ‘New Earths’ in the Milky Way Galaxy.” He spoke about the conditions needed to maximize a planet’s ability to sustain life — such as being in the “Goldilocks Zone,” an area that is neither too close nor too far away from its sun.

The forum, held at Southern’s Lyman Center for the Performing Arts, attracted about 650 people, including about 425 high school students from 14 schools. Also in attendance were about 30 middle school students, 45 seniors from area senior centers and members of the general public, in addition to Southern students and faculty.

Howell and other speakers during the forum were asked by the audience whether they believe there is life on other planets — beyond microbes.

“It’s unknown,” said Elliott Horch, professor of physics at Southern. But Horch hinted that it certainly is possible given the vast number of planets that exist in our own galaxy, let alone the universe.

Howell noted the two planets believed to have the best chance of harboring life are Kepler-452(b) — which has been labeled as “Earth’s larger and older cousin,” and Kepler-186(f). It’s sun is similar to our own and the planet is believed to be in the habitable zone. But he cautioned that 452(b) is 1.7 times the size of Earth, and therefore it may well have a dense atmosphere and be more akin to a Neptune-like planet.

On the other hand, Kepler-186(f) is very similar in size to Earth, but it orbits a much cooler star than our Sun, and therefore may not be able to harbor life.

Howell added that there are other planets that Kepler has identified that could harbor life. And the project continues to find new candidates all the time.

Meanwhile, there has been much buzz in recent months about Mars — such as the discovery of liquid water on the planet. Jennifer Stern, a NASA space scientist who is an expert on Mars, also spoke at the forum. She discussed what life is like on the Red Planet and some of the challenges involved in a future manned flight to the Red Planet.

The program also included a panel discussion that included Elliott; Jim Fullmer, associate professor of earth science at Southern; and Tabetha Boyajian, a post-doctoral fellow at Yale and member of the citizen astronomy organization, “Planet Hunters.”

Elliott Horch (center) makes a point during the recent astronomy forum at Southern. Also pictured are (from left): Steve Howell, project scientist for NASA's Kepler Mission; Tabetha Boyajian, a post-doctoral fellow at Yale University; Jim Fullmer, associate professor of earth science at Southern; and Jennifer Stern, a NASA space scientist and expert  on Mars.
Elliott Horch (center) makes a point during the recent astronomy forum at Southern. Also pictured are (from left): Steve Howell, project scientist for NASA’s Kepler Mission; Tabetha Boyajian, a post-doctoral fellow at Yale University; Jim Fullmer, associate professor of earth science at Southern; and Jennifer Stern, a NASA space scientist and expert on Mars.

Coming soon: Talking About Mars

newshub-Early-Literacy-15

Members of local literacy organizations will gather on campus on November 19 for a research forum sponsored by the university’s Journal of Student Psychological Research (JSPR). The forum, “Early Literacy Experiences, the Brain, and Child Development,” will feature a panel discussion with Dr. Perri Klass, National Medical Director of Reach Out and Read and a New York Times columnist; Dr. Myra Jones-Taylor, commissioner of the Connecticut Office of Early Childhood Education; and Dr. Julia Irwin, psychology professor at Southern and senior research scientist at Haskins Laboratories. Their discussion will be moderated by Dr. Laura Raynolds, SCSU professor of special education and reading and research affiliate at Haskins Laboratories.

Klass is a professor of journalism and pediatrics at New York University, where she is co-director of the Arthur L. Carter Journalism Institute. She has written extensively on pediatrics, literacy, medicine, and ethics for many publications, including the New York Times.

Jones-Taylor oversees early childhood programs and early intervention programs serving more than 50,000 children in the state each year. Her research expertise focuses on the effects of early care and education reform in low-income urban communities.

Irwin is author of Preparing Children for Reading Success: Hands-On Activities for Librarians, Educators, and Caregivers, along with co-author and psychology colleague, Dr. Dina Moore. Irwin’s research focuses on the development of audiovisual speech perception.

The event will take place from 5:30-8 p.m. in the Adanti Student Center Theater, with light refreshments from 5:30-6 p.m, the forum from 6-7:30 p.m., and a Q&A from 7:30-8 p.m. It is free and open to faculty, students, and any members of the community with interests in language, reading, child development, and education. Anyone interested in attending must RSVP by emailing JSPR@SouthernCT.edu. The forum is being held in collaboration with the SCSU Psychology Department, with special thanks to The Literacy Coalition of Greater New Haven for its assistance.

Cheryl Durwin, professor of psychology, is secretary of the coalition and the representative from Southern. The coalition is a group of literacy organizations in the New Haven area, says Durwin, whose own research involves assessment of and early intervention with at-risk early readers in grades K-2. Durwin, along with Patricia Kahlbaugh, professor of psychology, is a faculty adviser to the JSPR.

Durwin says the journal was launched a couple of years ago, the brainchild of a couple of graduate students who had the idea of showcasing the research of graduate and undergraduate students. The students approached Durwin about it, and she agreed to help. While the journal is currently funded by an outside donor, the students on the editorial board have also been fundraising and are working towards the journal becoming a university organization. The forum is the first event the journal has hosted.

Current and former students work on the journal — the editors are Jessica Franco, editor-in-chief; Kandice Green, associate editor; Whitney Hoffmann, associate editor; and Joshua Ryan, associate editor.  All editors are graduate students in the M.A. program in psychology. Durwin says the journal is seeking more interdisciplinary work related to psychology from students in other departments across campus.

“It is wonderfully rewarding to mentor the students through their research,” says Durwin.

Astronomy Forum: Exploring Our Place in Space

Two of the most ambitious projects ever undertaken by NASA — the human exploration of Mars and the search for Earth-like planets outside the solar system — will be the subject of a Nov. 16 forum at Southern.

The program, “Missions Possible: A Manned Flight to Mars; Finding ‘New Earths’ in the Milky Way Galaxy,” is scheduled for 9:30 a.m. to 11:30 a.m. at SCSU’s Lyman Center for the Performing Arts. The event is free and open to the public.

The Kepler Mission has identified more than 1,000 planets that are in a “habitable zone,” – an area in which their orbits are neither too close nor too far away from their suns to support life. Most recently, a planet 1,400 light years away called Kepler 452(b) shows the most promise to date of being able to sustain life. The planet has been dubbed “Earth’s older, larger cousin.”

Steve Howell, project scientist for Kepler, will be the keynote speaker. Howell is involved in NASA educational outreach programs and specializes in research on variable and binary stars. He serves on many review panels and was most recently a member of the National Academy of Sciences panel on NASA’s Constellation system.

Mars opportunityMeanwhile, plans are being developed for a manned flight to Mars for some time in the next two decades. While a manned landing is challenging, the development of a reliable return flight is a more difficult technological hurdle. The colonization of the Red Planet is also being considered by some, but would require means to deal with the planet’s thin atmosphere, lack of oxygen and barren cold weather.

Jennifer Stern, a space scientist for NASA at the Goddard Space Flight Center in Greenbelt, Maryland, will speak about the plausibility of human exploration of Mars, as well as what the recent discovery of water on the planet suggests for the possibility of life. She is a member of the science team for the Mars Science Laboratory Rover Curiosity, which landed on Mars in August 2012.

A panel discussion will follow the two main speakers, and will include: Elliott Horch, SCSU professor of physics; Jim Fullmer, SCSU associate professor of earth science; and Tabetha Boyajian, post-doctoral fellow at Yale University and a member of the citizen astronomy organization, “Planet Hunters.”

Horch, a noted astrophysicist, has developed an instrument for the National Science Foundation that is used on telescopes to dramatically improve the clarity of cosmic images and has been used as part of the Kepler Mission. Fullmer is a veteran astronomer whose expertise includes understanding the weather on celestial bodies, such as Mars. And Boyajian is the lead author of a recent article published in a scientific journal about the lack of conclusive evidence that a natural cause was responsible for a dimming of light in front of a faraway star. It has led some – including many in the scientific community – to believe the dimming is caused by a superstructure orbiting around that star, perhaps created by an advanced alien civilization, though Boyajian said it is still only a longshot possibility.

A question-and-answer period will conclude the program.

The forum is being sponsored by the SCSU Office of Public Affairs. Last fall, SCSU organized a forum to mark the 50th anniversary of the fall of the Berlin Wall and featured keynote speaker Nicholas Burns, a former U.S. National Security Council member and diplomat. A program to analyze the impending 2014 mid-term elections also was held last fall.

Other recent programs have included an examination of the situation in Ukraine in April 2014; a look at the Millennial and post-Millennial generations in October 2013; and a preview of the presidential and congressional elections in October 2012, featuring political journalist Erin McPike.

Parking will be available in the Wintergreen Parking Garage on Wintergreen Avenue, next to the Moore Fieldhouse.

For further information about the upcoming forum, please contact Joe Musante, the forum coordinator, at (203) 392-5073, or at musantej1@southernct.edu.

#scsuastronomy.

Many people say students today are more aware of the world around them than at any time in history. The technological boom in the 21st century – where news of events happening thousands of miles away can be reported instantaneously via social media – certainly helps make that a plausible argument.

We saw evidence to support that theory in our own backyard this week as social studies classes from four area high schools attended an April 7 forum at Southern called, Crisis in Ukraine: What Happened and What’s Next?” The latest developments in the standoff between Ukraine and Russia – and between East and West — were the focus of a panel discussion.

Panelists at Southern's forum on Ukraine ponder a question from moderator Chris Velardi (far left), a news anchor at Channel 8.
Panelists at Southern’s forum on Ukraine ponder a question from moderator Chris Velardi (far left), a news anchor at Channel 8.

Faculty experts representing a variety of disciplines and perspectives shared their views and insights. The panel discussion included a look at what the United States can and should do in response to the Russian annexation of Crimea, as well as with the threat of further territorial encroachments.

Costel Calin, an assistant professor of political science at Southern, gives his assessment of the situation in Ukraine.
Costel Calin, an assistant professor of political science at Southern, gives his assessment of the situation in Ukraine.

The high school contingent – representing Amity High School of Woodbridge; Shelton High School; and Hillhouse High School and Sound School, both from New Haven – totaled about 100 students. In all, about 250 people attended, which also included college students (mainly from Southern), faculty, staff and some individuals from the general public.

A Southern student takes notes during the panel discussion.
A Southern student takes notes during the panel discussion.

But it wasn’t a matter of a few teachers forcing their classes to sit through a college program. The students generally and genuinely seemed excited to be with us and were attentive to the discussion. In fact, a few teachers told us beforehand that the students had been discussing the situation in Ukraine in their classes and were eager to attend the forum to learn more about what is happening.

To be sure, any group of 100 high school students is likely to include a few who wished they could be somewhere else. Of course, that’s true of adults, too. But by and large, their behavior and enthusiasm was impressive, especially at a time when young people are often criticized as having a short attention span. Most listened intently during the 1 hour, 45 minute program as the professors enlightened and opined.

These Amity High School students are enjoying their trip to Southern.
These Amity High School students are enjoying their trip to Southern.

In fact, many of the Shelton High School students were continuing the discussion after the program’s conclusion, according to their history teachers Sharon Cayer and James Allan.

“From my observation, the high school students – and the audience, in general – certainly seemed engaged,” said Greg Adams, chairman of Southern’s Sociology Department and a panelist for the forum. “That gives me hope for the future.”

Hillhouse High School students are eager for the program to start.
Hillhouse High School students are eager for the program to start.

Adams was part of the six-person panel that also included: Kevin Buterbaugh, SCSU professor of political science; Patricia Olney, SCSU professor of political science; Krystyna Gorniak-Kocikowska, SCSU professor of philosophy; Costel Calin, SCSU assistant professor of political science; and Matt Schmidt, assistant professor of political science and national security at the University of New Haven.

In addition to Sharon Cayer and James Allen from Shelton High, the teachers whose classes attended included John Buell from Sound School; Jack Paulishen from Hillhouse; and James Clifford, Chris Borelli and Lee Ann Browett from Amity.

Sound School students are among the first to arrive for the forum.
Sound School students are among the first to arrive for the forum.

If you would like to see the program in its entirety, you can check it out thanks to the Connecticut (Television) Network – CT-N.
http://www.ct-n.com/ondemand.asp?ID=10117